How To Check My Ram Speed Windows 7

Try the methods above and check the CPU usage condition for health keeping!. So,I searched on. How to speed up your laptop: 9 ways to boost your PC; 2. Stress CPU Use your processor or even a specific number of processor cores to full capacity. How to select a video card. msc” into the Run dialog, and press Enter. The problem: Windows 10 works slowly on Virtualbox virtual machine, while Windows 7 is fast and snappy. When your system resources are being heavily used, the overall performance and stability of the computer can be impacted. Check installed RAM in System properties Step 1: Open the System window in Windows 10 by pressing Win + X (or right-clicking on the Start button) and then select the System option from the pop-up menu. Determine the version number of a currently installed driver. You can check your laptop's memory usage in Windows Task Manager. How to Check Your Computer's Memory Usage in Windows Is it time to buy more RAM for your computer's total memory. Change the values of the LargeSystemCache key in the registry from 0 to 1. Check PC Performance in Windows 10 Using WinSAT Tool Posted on July 5, 2017 Author Trisha Leave a comment Older versions of the Windows operating system like Windows Vista and Windows 7 used to have an experience index in the system properties which displayed how powerful your system really is in terms of hardware. 1: Windows Media Centre: If you have Windows 7 Home Premium, Windows 7 Professional, Windows 7 Ultimate, Windows 8 Pro with Media Centre or Windows 8. Windows Memory. We already have written a tutorial article in which we have shown how to check the RAM Speed using software called Piriform Speccy. When it’s running, it uses minimal resources with almost no CPU time. Check your motherboard manual about the proper methods for setting the timings for memory. Mac users shouldn't need to defrag at all. The paging file is the disk image of your computer's memory. From here, click view system information to open a new window. Right-click on the desktop and choose Personalize, then Desktop Background at the bottom of the resulting dialog window. Open an elevated Command Prompt window and run this WMIC command in Windows 7 to check the CPU current clock speed and expected clock speed repeatedly at 5 second. Other than this, the memory bus is the setting you'll likely need to set. If not, restarting Windows might solve the problem. Determine Memory Type Without Opening The Computer With so many different types of RAM these days, purchasing a memory upgrade is not as easy as it used to be. for other win7 64bit devices with 8GB physical and 7. Find and open the Memory tab How to check my ram speed the navigation panel on the left-hand side of System Information. After selecting properties, look for RAM and the number after. Model: Acer. On a Windows machine, page files have a. 1 & Windows 10 (not in XP). If your security suite includes a firewall, you should turn Vista’s firewall off. Windows OS: Windows 10 SAC, Windows 10 LTSB 2016, Windows 10 LTSB 2015, Windows 8. Our Company News Repair Status Check Resources + Resources. Then click on the change button, then you need to Untick the “ Automatically Manage Paging “. Firstly insert your “Pen Drive” >> Now right click on your pen drive. How to Use Pendrive As RAM in Windows XP. Right click on cmd and select run as administrator. A CPU prepped for running a virtual machine. So, if you want to know the RAM frequencies of the connected RAM sticks, the method to see that is given here. TB = 1 trillion bytes. Fix Windows 10 not using full RAM. Updates installed in the last 30 days appear below this list. If you’re using Windows 7, press Windows Key + R, type “eventvwr. Speed Up Windows 10 – Master Tutorial to Make Windows 10 Super Fast Windows 10 Technical Preview is really great as compared to previous version. Also, make sure that the RAM is properly placed into its placeholder, sometimes silly things like this can also cause this issue, so before continuing make sure to swap the RAM slots in order to check for faulty RAM slots. Check if your RAM is compatible with your motherboard. The area of the hard disk that stores the RAM image is called a page file. After a change in product key, Windows 7 requires to be activated again to verify the new key. How to Check RAM Type and RAM Speed on Windows 7 1. And you may asking this question to your friends that how to Speed up Windows 10, 8. Decrease it to whatever the least value you want. Choose Memory Diagnostic Tool. Notice this Benchmark compared to the Seagate 6 Gb/s (above) that was at 70 MB/s this is a 75% increase in speed. Windows sets its size for optimal performance based on your computer's configuration. Find your Network Card in the list of devices. IRQ's, DMA's, and Memory Addresses: How to avoid conflicts and make things work Printer Friendly Version Hardware conflicts within a system are one of the primary reasons why a computer ceases to function normally and throws the user into PC HELL. You can check for this on both Windows 7 and Windows 8. Take a quick look at the process monitors on a server to check the CPU and memory used up by a process at one go. It will check your upload/ download speeds, as well as how long it takes for an external website to reach your PC. Where on my PC can I go to confirm that my RAM is running at the proper MHz speed? The system display just shows how much RAM is installed and the speed of the CPU. Remove hard drive from your notebook and check which company manufactured it. Press the Set button, you may need to restart the computer. This paper is featured on: Over 100 Tips for Faster Microsoft Access Databases. Windows seems to have set up for my Samsung SSD in compliance with much of this article and has made an amazing difference. The current RAM configuration can be accessed via the Windows key + Pause. 0 speed, Mark Gold asked, “How can I check the speed of my USB devices, both 2. If you are overclocking or tweaking your RAM settings in BIOS then you can use this tool to do RAM or memory stability check. Before trying out the methods to increase the VRAM, you need first to check how much dedicated video memory your graphics card has in Windows 10. Or set the root path where the EmptyStandByList. Part 1: Speed up Windows 10 with quick fixes. I was using Windows Vista,but when installed some programs its performance became low. The Memory Diagnostics Tool will run automatically when you restart Windows. Check installed RAM in System properties Step 1: Open the System window in Windows 10 by pressing Win + X (or right-clicking on the Start button) and then select the System option from the pop-up menu. Click the gear-shaped icon in the lower-left side of the Start window. If your RAM size is small and you are running more applications at a time, then you may face different problems. Speed Test is a meter that monitors your internet connection, web site, cpu, memory, Hard Drives, Wifi, LAN, Processes and much more all in real time and will store all data recorded into an log, so it can be easily imported into almost any application. These Windows 7 tools will help you troubleshoot and fix a slow computer in a quick and easy way. To view the installed memory and the usable memory in Windows 7, use one of the following ways as you like: Way 1: Click Start, type ram In the Search box, then hit Enter. Test how much your Windows system is using with Performance and Resource Monitor. Fix Windows 10 not using full RAM. How can I determine the bus speed of my installed RAM? My system configuration is following: Windows 7 Ultimate 64-bit. Speed Up Windows 10 – Master Tutorial to Make Windows 10 Super Fast Windows 10 Technical Preview is really great as compared to previous version. Mauro Huculak. Open Event Viewer. Moreover, RAM is much faster than virtual memory on a hard disk drive. Type the following command: wmic MemoryChip get BankLabel, Capacity, MemoryType, TypeDetail, Speed, Tag. How to Check RAM Type and RAM Speed on Windows 7 1. Steps to check RAM Frequency or speed in Windows So, if you want to know the RAM frequencies of the connected RAM sticks, the method to see that is given here. Click Yes if prompted to check your drivers. I had been having a heck of a time with updates, backups and defragging. Physical Memory Free—The amount of physical RAM that Windows 7 has available for your programs. Introduction 2. Question Blue screens - checking RAM - Windows Memory Diagnostics indicated failures in some MB slots: Question How to check if RAM is faulty? Question How do I check RAM frequency: Question Memory Parity Check: Question Corsair Vengeance RGB Pro Series 16GB 3000Mhz compatibility check: Question Media test failure check cable, operating System. windows 7 computing gadget this is. If you are always feeling that the computer system boot up or startup process is slow, and to slow and lag until can get sleepy while waiting for Windows OS to ready itself then try this Trick on your PC because I am sure this Trick is definitely increase your system Speed. sys file in Windows 7. Bad RAM can cause unpredictable behavior in Windows. Add More RAM Windows 10 isn't as much of a hog as earlier versions of the OS, but more memory is always a way to speed up PC operations. 8 free ways to make Windows 7 faster Not impressed by Windows 10 and sticking with Windows 7 instead? Here are some easy ways to keep it running smoothly — and to speed it up on an older PC. In this video tutorial, viewers learn how to test their system performance. Then click on the change button, then you need to Untick the “ Automatically Manage Paging “. Sometimes Windows 10 isn’t using all RAM since your RAM isn’t compatible with your motherboard. This information will be written on a sticker. Here's a few different ways you can test your RAM for errors. Hope you guys like the list, do add any other software you know about in the comments. So, I decided to make a list of atleast 25 freeware that is a must have on these phones. In the System Properties window, the system will list "Installed memory (RAM)" with the total amount detected. (Missteps can lead to system instability. How to install Windows 10 in VirtualBox Posted on October 2, 2014 by vonnie — 31 Comments ↓ Two days ago, Microsoft announced Windows 10 to the world and then, the following day, released the technical preview as an ISO for everyone to test. Download Piriform Speccy, which is a small utility software to see different specifications related to your computer, from. In my case I have Windows 7 and Windows 8 installed and I have set the Boot Timeout to 3 seconds. To launch the command line on a windows 7 or later version, Press the Windows Key, Type “ CMD ”, (without the quotes) and hit the return or Enter key on the Keyboard. Navigate to Windows Logs > System. Memory: The speed that your CPU can access the memory in your computer, in megabytes per second -- as determined by timing a large memory to memory transfer. How to update the software on your Mac. If that’s the case, the PC won’t recognize it and you won’t be able to use it. Windows 7 can run on a PC with 1 gigabyte (GB) of RAM. There is third party app which can achieve the same, and it is a free program. How can i know the RAM speed of my laptop? it's an Asus K40IN-VX128 How do I make sure if the frequency is 667MHz or 800MHz, I was thinking of an upgrade. How to See System Memory (RAM) Size in Windows 10/7. But if old Ram does not match any of them. Get the best performance out of your laptop today. Connecting to Wi. If you don’t know which graphics card is installed or how much video memory it has, here’s how you can check: On your PC, select the Startbutton, then select Settings > System > Display. 4GB DDR2 RAM. Microsoft Access Performance Tips to Speed up Your Access Databases by Dan Haught, Executive Vice President, and Luke Chung, President of FMS. On Vista and Windows 7. And this all costs you absolutely nothing!. More is better. This wikiHow teaches you how to check your RAM chip's data transfer speed, using a Mac or a Windows PC. Tap the start button. "System" window will show basic information about your computer like Windows edition, Processor type and speed, installed Memory(RAM) on your computer, system type, your computer name, domain or workgroup name and Windows activation status. However, if you are still inclined to look further, follow Step 7. How to increase Virtual Memory size If your computer is slower then one of the most vital causes is the installed RAM. Open ‘My Computer’ or ‘This PC’ depending on your version of Windows Operating System. For example, a 32-bit version of Windows 7 may report that there is only 3. As its name suggests, it is a type of computer memory that can be randomly accessed. Open an elevated command prompt. This is your processor speed. Type the “wmic MEMORYCHIP get BankLabel, DeviceLocator, Capacity, informationSpeed ” command to have the complete information about your system’s RAM. Choose Properties from the context menu that. While it Might be able to beat down all its contenders hands down in terms of speed and features, Chrome does has a weak point. This helps you get an idea of your computer Memory, so that you could change it when you encounter any problems. However, finding the different caches in Windows 8 is a little trickier than in previous Windows systems. To get the info from a remote computer, use -computername switch to the cmdlet. Make sure that if you are adding new RAM to existing RAM that the clock speed matches the original RAM. Windows 7 is definitely the most famous OS in the World right now, so it’s not a surprise if people want to get their hands on it. Very similar to other RAM test programs, Windows Memory Diagnostic performs a series of extensive tests to determine what, if anything, is wrong with your computer memory. But if old Ram does not match any of them. 41 available it says fail. Updates installed in the last 30 days appear below this list. Optimizing it can speed up your PC considerably. I think if you have 2-8+GB of RAM, your computer will run pretty smoothly even if Superfetch is turned on, or off. Partition your HDD to improve performance. Your central processing unit (a. Accessing files from the RAM is much faster than doing the same from a hard disk. How To Tweak Your RAM In BIOS. To launch the command line on a windows 7 or later version, Press the Windows Key, Type “ CMD ”, (without the quotes) and hit the return or Enter key on the Keyboard. 1, 8 and 7 Performance and may thinking to change your computer's operating system one more. My computer went from 100% to 10% as soon as I stopped it. Why? Because Microsoft Windows and many of the most popular applications that run on it are resource hogs. PowerShell script to list Memory Slot Information and Detailed and Summary Memory Information for a remote computer, including: 1) Total # of memory slots in the system 2) Each non-empty Memory Slot ID, along with Amount of Memory in the slot (in GB) [I added cleaner formatti. Put simply, you have to check if your processor is 32-bit or 64-bit, in order to determine which Windows you need to install. Honestly, you have nothing further to do. After making a change, you can run the RAM test again to see if there's a problem. So it reduces the time taken to fetch data from slower hard disk to processor while running a program. exe" in the Start Menu search field. Physical Memory Cached—The amount of physical RAM that Windows 7 has set aside to store recently used programs and documents. This speed is typically given in hertz (Hz). Welcome to Windows 7 Forums. Right-click the My Computer link for Windows XP or “Computer” for Vista and Windows Seven. i still experiencing it today. You can check for this on both Windows 7 and Windows 8. Allocate about 300 MB of the paging file to the system drive, select the second drive in the Virtual Memory dialog box,. Windows OS: Windows 10 SAC, Windows 10 LTSB 2016, Windows 10 LTSB 2015, Windows 8. This works in most cases, where the issue is originated due to a system corruption. Sure enough it is my Windows 7 windows update. Speed Up Windows 10 – Master Tutorial to Make Windows 10 Super Fast Windows 10 Technical Preview is really great as compared to previous version. Goals include discovering the capacity, speed and data width. And when i used this TCP Optimizer program, my internet speed increased by 3 MB per seconds, and my Ping decreased by 14. Learn how to speed up your computer with these 5 easy fixes. I’m using the –After parameter to speed. And there's more bad news: This 4GB memory limit is shared between RAM and other devices (e. When it’s running, it uses minimal resources with almost no CPU time. The free space on the device is added to the cache memory to increase the system speed. Microsoft has an Upgrade Advisor tool to assess whether a system is prepared for a Windows 7 installation. Each of those windows and their contents is stored in RAM so that. Do you know? You can use USB/pendrive as Ram in Windows 7, 8, 10. If your USB Flash drive no longer works correctly, it may be possible to repair it. An overtaxed power supply can cause many different video card problems. 5 times the total RAM (With a maximum of 3 times of total RAM), and this will satisfy most computer configurations. Microsoft Fix It is a free tool from Microsoft that will help users of Windows 7 or earlier to clean up and perform many simple maintenance problems. A window like the one below will be launched and you will be able to proceed with checking for system software and hardware specification. Intel GMA 4500MHD. I know it is easy to check the total RAM installed on a computer (eg 32 GB), but is there an easy way to check in Windows if the RAM is e. Part 3: How to Enter BiOS Settings on Windows 7. Sometimes it becomes essential to see what hardware is installed in your computer or laptop. It's quite important to know everything about your PC: hard drive performance, RAM size, processor speed, GPU performance etc. This works in most cases, where the issue is originated due to a system corruption. This wikiHow teaches you how to check your RAM chip's data transfer speed, using a Mac or a Windows PC. Method 1:-Increase Ram Using ReadyBoost In Windows 7, 8, 10. A fourth that should never be overlooked is the number of cores the processor has. How to check the Windows Experience Index in Windows 10: 1. In order to speed up your Windows 10 system, you should check for these startup programs and keep only those which are useful. Find and click the Windows icon in the lower-left corner of. Most recent-era laptops take DDR3 RAM that's PC3-12800 speed and either 1. Check installed RAM in System properties Step 1: Open the System window in Windows 10 by pressing Win + X (or right-clicking on the Start button) and then select the System option from the pop-up menu. I havent used windows 8 before I have a mate who has a new pc running windows 8 and he has no idea of the processor & ram installed. check out our. Also, make sure that the RAM is properly placed into its placeholder, sometimes silly things like this can also cause this issue, so before continuing make sure to swap the RAM slots in order to check for faulty RAM slots. Microsoft recommends a minimum 1 GB of RAM to start and run Windows effectively on a 32-bit system, and 2 GB for 64-bit systems. On a computer that is running Windows 7, the usable memory (RAM) may be less than the installed memory. After reading my article on USB 3. See your computer manual to determine if it supports ECP mode and DMA transfer. To check the CPU speed, in Windows 7 and Vista, click Start. On Vista and Windows 7. 7 Tips and Tricks to Make Your Vista Machine Run Faster - select the contributor at the end of the page - Vista is filled with new features and visual effects that are useful and visually pleasing. Check your motherboard manual about the proper methods for setting the timings for memory. But even the answer to that has already been given. Type cmd (without space) on Run windows dialogue. I'm trying to find out if my Aspire E15 (E5-521G-632L) has two memory slots so I could upgrade my memory by just adding 2MB so it'll be 6MB RAM after. F-PROT Antivirus automatically disinfects or quarantines all infected files upon detection. After you determine how much RAM your system can support, you can install your new RAM. Select the Change box for virtural memory; Un-check Automatically Manage Page File Size For All Drives; Select No Paging File and click the set box; and ; Select Yes to allow and restart. msc in the box, and then press Enter key to open Device Manager. 2x16 GB, 4. We'll go over how to speed up Windows, and which methods may work the best for your PC! Your memory is awesome, and so you can find all the papers you need, but you waste time moving around. Mauro Huculak. The new 4GB RAM as the seller told me has 800MHz bus speed. ini Prior to Editing. Our scanner simply checks for the make and model of your computer, the operating system and details of the memory. Sometimes I could see the chars appearing slowly on the screen while I typed the email or it was impossible to drag & drop a email to a different folder because. Here's where to find it, in about three clicks. Note that it will show you the actual clock speed of the RAM here; for DDR2 RAM, double this to get the effective speed. Step 1, Open Start. Go to Windows logo and on search option type cmd or command prompt (do not run). There are many ways to do this, but I will tell you the easiest ones If you are on Windows 8 or above, then press Windows button+X. Clean Toolbars & Apps My Faster PC scans for unwanted browser toolbars, add-ons, and programs that can clog your disk, slow your PC, and risks your security. 1: Windows Media Centre: If you have Windows 7 Home Premium, Windows 7 Professional, Windows 7 Ultimate, Windows 8 Pro with Media Centre or Windows 8. Press the Set button, you may need to restart the computer. RAM is especially important. speeds attained under unrealistic scenarios). exe" in the Start Menu search field. Open My computer >> Open Control Panel >> Open System and Security >> Choose System >>Your computer's processor name and speed will be displayed under system section. 1/8, and Windows 7, like use Hibernation instead of Sleep, disable indexing, enable write caching, and move temporary files, but here we just introduce the above 5 since they play much more important roles. It tests the Random Access Memory (RAM) on your computer and reports the errors that are found. Determine Memory Module Type, part Number, Model, Speed etc Using WMIC console tool. Right-click on the drive whose storage space left you want to check, and choose "Properties". Here's how to check your processor's architecture as well as how you can check if you have 32-bit or 64-bit Windows installed on your system. Find and click the Windows icon in the lower-left corner of your screen to open the Start menu. Type cmd (without space) on Run windows dialogue. Restarting your computer closes all the applications or software running on your computer, applications running on the taskbar and dozens of other services that may be running in the. Microsoft recommends a minimum 1 GB of RAM to start and run Windows effectively on a 32-bit system, and 2 GB for 64-bit systems. SpeedFan works under Windows 9x, ME, NT, 2000, 2003, XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10. HP Desktop PCs - Upgrading Memory (RAM) maximum for your system, check Maximum memory supported by operating system to see how much memory your version of Windows. To turn the feature on, click Start and type Power options. Accessing files from the RAM is much faster than doing the same from a hard disk. Match your Ram with the picture which I added with the answer. Windows Memory. Intel GMA 4500MHD. Ways to fix high CPU/Memory Usage in Windows 10 Note : You can check out your PC’s CPU and memory usage by going to the Task Manager. Yes indeed, but there is no built-in method with a GUI, to check the WEI in Windows 10/8. To determine the front-side bus speed on your computer, there are two primary options: Motherboard documentation. By the help of RAM, you can access all the stored information in less amount of time as compared to the hard disk and other storage devices. ini Prior to Editing. i have 500gb hdd that is in my enclosure, it is working in other pc, xp and windows 7. How to get the Current CPU Clock Speed, Computer Service Tag Number, Bios Name and Version using WMI Computer stickers holds your computer service tag number or serial number information and if the technical support person needs to get the number as soon as possible. As well as affecting your usable free space on your hard drive, fragmentation also has a negative impact on your computer’s ability to store your data in sequence, hence slowing down it’s speed. Open “Properties” >> Then “ReadyBoost” tab. Open an elevated command prompt. In this quick guide, you will learn how to easily check how much RAM you have and the system specifications on Windows 10. This tutorial will show you how to speed up Windows 8. Step 3, Click System. So, best would be to increase your RAM (it can be done easily). If not confident with hardware, boot the PC, go into BIOS (Generally key to go into BIOS is “DEL” or “F2”, - may vary depending o. Note: Check your memory. Right click anywhere on an empty space on your desktop, and select Personalize. Our Company News Repair Status Check Resources + Resources. The Windows Management Instrumentation is an extremely useful tool to view hardware information and automate system tasks. [9] For storage drives, GB = 1 billion bytes. xx availble it passes. With following commands/tools, you will be able get following information:. But a distinction comes into play when you have multiple processors (several CPU chips inside your PC ), or a multi-core processor (a single dye with several. On this pane, you can see an overview of the system's hardware, including total installed RAM. How to Increase Computer Speed 1) Use Microsoft Fix It. Check out AMD vs Intel Quad Core Standoff 64 bit Windows 7, 8 gb of RAM 500 gb Seagate Hard Drives. check if there are updates, and then. How to Check the RAM Health on Windows 10 By Robert Zak - Posted on Apr 13, 2017 Apr 12, 2017 in Hardware Guides , Windows RAM often comes after software issues and hard drive fragmentation in terms of us pointing the finger of blame at it. Windows Memory. Learn how to speed up your computer with these 5 easy fixes. How to get more RAM for Free | Double your PC RAM. The device manager does not provide any information about this. Minimize the paging file. This is your processor speed. Like most technology, each new addition should be an improvement in reliability, speed, and overall performance. HeavyLoad writes a test file to your hard disk with variable speed. Alternatively, open Run dialog box by simultaneously pressing Windows logo and R keys, type Devmgmt. My quest is whether to try out the advice and steps provided for computers that do not have the same type of windows as mine eg. Sure enough it is my Windows 7 windows update. msc in the box, and then press Enter key to open Device Manager. Now, this post will show you how to check your computer’s RAM in Windows 10. Upgrade your RAM. Find how much RAM is installed and available in Windows Vista and 7 From the desktop or Start menu , right-click on Computer and select Properties. Simply right click the taskbar and select Task Manager (in Windows 7, hit the Windows key and type "task manager" in the search. How to find memory usage of individual Windows services? And you get svchost. Im chatting to him on skype so not physically at the machine in the regular windows (vista / 7) you could see this info by going to "Control Panel/System" how does one do this in windows 8?. Physical Memory Free—The amount of physical RAM that Windows 7 has available for your programs. I havent used windows 8 before I have a mate who has a new pc running windows 8 and he has no idea of the processor & ram installed. Do you have extra RAM and a need for speed? Why not put that unused memory to use and get a logical drive with speeds of 10 GB/s or more? We show you how to create a blazing fast RAM Disk in Windows with a free utility and just a few minutes of configuration. Once the purchase has been completed, a download link shall be provided that will contain the files needed to create your own bootable media. Again if you are not an appearance lover of Windows 7 then disable visual effects. How do I check my RAM speed Windows 10? Windows makes it difficult to see the clock speed of your RAM, so for this we need to resort to a third-party program: CPU-Z. Note: Check your memory. How to Speed up Windows 7 by 100% - Duration: 7. In my case I have Windows 7 and Windows 8 installed and I have set the Boot Timeout to 3 seconds. 1, 8 and 7 Performance and may thinking to change your computer's operating system one more. Hello friends this post is for those who want to increase their PC RAM. 41 available it says fail. Take a backup of the registry before running REGEDIT. 65v for example). Scan my system for the right type of RAM Random-access memory (usually known by its acronym, RAM) is a form of computer data storage. Firstly insert your "Pen Drive" >> Now right click on your pen drive. While specifics will differ slightly by manufacturer, you'll see an option for "System Memory" or "RAM" showing the total amount of RAM on the computer, and its type and speed. Windows Vista should look similar. These changes drastically improved my laptop performance, speed and fan noise. Download Piriform Speccy, which is a small utility software to see different specifications related to your computer, from here. but computer is running on 224mb very slow and i dont know what to do to. Your actual question "How to retrieve available RAM from Windows command line" has already been answered. Introduction 2.